Percutaneous lumbar facet augmentation in the treatment of lumbar facet arthropathy

Percutaneous lumbar facet augmentation in the treatment of lumbar facet arthropathy

Abstract
Zygapophyseal or facet joints (Z-joints) are paired diarthrodial joints in the posterior aspect of the vertebral column and are the only true synovial joints between adjacent spinal levels in humans. As true synovial joints, each facet contains a joint space capable of accommodating 1–1.5 ml of fluid, a synovial membrane, hyaline cartilage surfaces and a fibrous capsule.1 The fibrous capsule of about 1 mm in thickness is composed mostly of collagen fibers arranged in a transverse fashion to resist flexion. The joint capsule is thick posteriorly, supported by fibers arising from the multifidus muscle. Superiorly and inferiorly, the capsule attaches further away, thereby forming subcapsular recesses with osteochondral margins that are filled with fibroadipose mesiaci. Anteriorly, the capsule is replaced by the ligamentum flavum.

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